Τετάρτη, 1 Απριλίου 2009

Όταν στους ιπποδρόμους σφάζονταν άνθρωποι


Το Σάββατο 4/4/09 μ.α.χ.χ οι θεσσαλονικείς τιμούν την μνήμη των σφαγιαθέντων συμπολιτών τους στο όργιο βίας που έμεινε γνωστό ώς η σφαγή της Θεσσαλονίκης και συγκαταλέγεται στις πιο φρικτές και με δόλο μαζικές σφαγές υπό πολιτικό συντονισμό με την εντολή του Θεοδοσίου του επονομασθέντα απο την Ανατολική Ορθόδοξη Εκκλησία ώς Μέγα για το θεάρεστο του έργο, του εκχριστιανισμού μεγάλου μέρους της ανατολικής ρωμαϊκής αυτοκρατορίας.Πολύ καλά κάνουν οι Θεσσαλονικείς και τιμούν την μνήμη των αδικοχαμένων συμπολιτών τους, έτσι ώστε όλοι να μην ξεχνάμε τις τραγικές συνέπειες που μπορεί να έχουν οι πολιτικές επιδιώξεις και κυρίως η ιδεολογικοποίηση και δογματική χρήση του Θείου.Πολύ καλά κάνουν οι Θεσσαλονικείς και αποδίδουν τιμή σύμφωνα με τα πατρώα έθιμα των σφαγιαθέντων και όχι με αυτά των σφαγέων, για να θυμόμαστε πως κάθε τιμή αποδίδεται σύμφωνα με το τιμώμενο πρόσωπο και όχι σύμφωνα με τις όποιες ιδεοληπτικές αντανακλάσεις μας. Και για να μπορούν όλα αυτά να γίνουν πράξη ενάρετη, βασισμένη σε γνώση και όχι σε ιδεοληψίες ας διαβάσουμε και την ιστορία έτσι όπως την αφηγείται ο E.Gibbon στο έργο του "The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire". Στα Ελληνικά το έργο κυκλοφρεί απο τις εκδόσεις "Ελεύθερη Σκέψις"

Sedition and massacre of Thessalonica, A.D. 390.
The sedition of Thessalonica is ascribed to a more shameful cause, and was productive of much more dreadful consequences. That great city, the metropolis of all the Illyrian provinces, had been protected from the dangers of the Gothic war by strong fortifications and a numerous garrison. Botheric, the general of those troops, and, as it should seem from his name, a barbarian, had among his slaves a beautiful boy, who excited the impure desires of one of the charioteers of the circus. The insolent and brutal lover was thrown into prison by the order of Botheric; and he sternly rejected the importunate clamours of the multitude, who, on the day of the public games, lamented the absence of their favourite, and considered the skill of a charioteer as an object of more importance than his virtue. The resentment of the people was embittered by some previous disputes; and, as the strength of the garrison had been drawn away for the service of the Italian war, the feeble remnant, whose numbers were reduced by desertion, could not save the unhappy general from their licentious fury. Botheric and several of his principal officers were inhumanly murdered; their mangled bodies were dragged about the streets; and the emperor, who then resided at Milan, was surprised by the intelligence of the audacious and wanton cruelty of the people of Thessalonica. The sentence of a dispassionate judge would have inflicted a severe punishment on the authors of the crime; and the merit of Botheric might contribute to exasperate the grief and indignation of his master. The fiery and choleric temper of Theodosius was impatient of the dilatory forms of a judicial inquiry; and he hastily resolved that the blood of his lieutenant should be expiated by the blood of the guilty people. Yet his mind still fluctuated between the counsels of clemency and of revenge; the zeal of the bishops had almost extorted from the reluctant emperor the promise of a general pardon; his passion was again inflamed by the flattering suggestions of his minister Rufinus; and, after Theodosius had despatched the messengers of death, he attempted, when it was too late, to prevent the execution of his orders. The punishment of a Roman city was blindly committed to the undistinguishing sword of the barbarians; and the hostile preparations were concerted with the dark and perfidious artifice of an illegal conspiracy. The people of Thessalonica were treacherously invited, in the name of their sovereign, to the games of the circus; and such was their insatiate avidity for those amusements that every consideration of fear or suspicion was disregarded by the numerous spectators. As soon as the assembly was complete, the soldiers, who had secretly been posted round the circus, received the signal, not of the races, but of a general massacre. The promiscuous carnage continued three hours, without discrimination of strangers or natives, of age or sex, of innocence or guilt; the most moderate accounts state the number of the slain at seven thousand; and it is affirmed by some writers that more than fifteen thousand victims were sacrificed to the manes of Botheric. A foreign merchant, who had probably no concern in his murder, offered his own life and all his wealth to supply the place of one of his two sons; but while the father hesitated with equal tenderness, while he was doubtful to choose, and unwilling to condemn, the soldiers determined his suspense by plunging their daggers at the same moment into the breasts of the defenceless youths. The apology of the assassins, that they were obliged to produce the prescribed number of heads, serves only to increase, by an appearance of order and design, the horrors of the massacre, which was executed by the commands of Theodosius. The guilt of the emperor is aggravated by his long and frequent residence at Thessalonica. The situation of the unfortunate city, the aspect of the streets and buildings, the dress and faces of the inhabitants, were familiar, and even present, to his imagination; and Theodosius possessed a quick and lively sense of the existence of the people whom he destroyed.(91)

Influence and conduct of Ambrose, A.D. 388.
The respectful attachment of the emperor for the orthodox clergy had disposed him to love and admire the character of Ambrose, who united all the episcopal virtues in the most eminent degree. The friends and ministers of Theodosius imitated the example of their sovereign; and he observed, with more surprise than displeasure, that all his secret counsels were immediately communicated to the archbishop, who acted from the laudable persuasion that every measure of civil government may have some connection with the glory of God and the interest of the true religion. The monks and populace of Callinicum, an obscure town on the frontier of Persia, excited by their own fanaticism, and by that of their bishop, had tumultuously burnt a conventicle of the Valentinians and a synagogue of the Jews. The seditious prelate was condemned by the magistrate of the provinces either to rebuild the synagogue or to repay the damage; and this moderate sentence was confirmed by the emperor. But it was not confirmed by the archbishop of Milan.(92) He dictated an epistle of censure and reproach, more suitable perhaps if the emperor had received the mark of circumcision and renounced the faith of his baptism. Ambrose considers the toleration of the Jewish as the persecution of the Christian religion; boldly declares that he himself and every true believer would eagerly dispute with the bishop of Callinicum the merit of the deed and the crown of martyrdom; and laments, in the most pathetic terms, that the execution of the sentence would be fatal to the fame and salvation of Theodosius. As this private admonition did not produce an immediate effect, the archbishop from his pulpit(93) publicly addressed the emperor on his throne;(94) nor would he consent to offer the oblation of the altar till he had obtained from Theodosius a solemn and positive declaration which secured the impunity of the bishop and monks of Callinicum. The recantation of Theodosius was sincere; (95) and, during the term of his residence at Milan, his affection for Ambrose was continually increased by the habits of pious and familiar conversation.

Pennance of Theodosius, A.D. 390.
When Ambrose was informed of the massacre of Thessalonica, his mind was filled with horror and anguish. He retired into the country to indulge his grief and to avoid the presence of Theodosius. But as the archbishop was satisfied that a timid silence would render him the accomplice of his guilt, he represented in a private letter the enormity of the crime, which could only be effaced by the tears of penitence. The episcopal vigour of Ambrose was tempered by prudence; and he contented himself with signifying(96) an indirect sort of excommunication, by the assurance that he had been warned in a vision not to offer the oblation in the name or in the presence of Theodosius, and by the advice that he would confine himself to the use of prayer, without presuming to approach the altar of Christ, or to receive the holy eucharist with those hands that were still polluted with the blood of an innocent people. The emperor was deeply affected by his own reproaches and by those of his spiritual father; and after he had bewailed the mischievous and irreparable consequences of his rash fury, he proceeded in the accustomed manner to perform his devotions in the great church of Milan. He was stopped in the porch by the archbishop, who, in the tone and language of an ambassador of Heaven, declared to his sovereign that private contrition was not sufficient to atone for a public fault or to appease the justice of the offended Deity. Theodosius humbly represented that, if he had contracted the guilt of homicide, David, the, man after God's own heart, had been guilty not only of murder but of adultery. "You have imitated David in his crime, imitate then his repentance," was the reply of the undaunted Ambrose. The rigorous conditions of peace and pardon were accepted, and the public penance of the emperor Theodosius has been recorded as one of the most honourable events in the annals of the church. According to the mildest rules of ecclesiastical discipline which were established in the fourth century, the crime of homicide was expiated by the penitence of twenty years:(97) and as it was impossible in the period of human life to purge the accumulated guilt of the massacre of Thessalonica, the murderer should have been excluded from the holy communion till the hour of his death. But the archbishop, consulting the maxims of religious policy, granted some indulgence to the rank of his illustrious penitent, who humbled in the dust the pride of the diadem; and the public edification might be admitted as a weighty reason to abridge the duration of his punishment. It was sufficient that the emperor of the Romans, stripped of the ensigns of royalty, should appear in a mournful and suppliant posture; and that, in the midst of the church of Milan, he should humbly solicit, with sighs and tears, the pardon of his sins.(98) In this spiritual cure Ambrose employed the various methods of mildness and severity. After a delay of about eight months Theodosius was restored to the communion of the faithful; and the edict, which interposes a salutary interval of thirty days between the sentence and the execution, may be accepted as the worthy fruits of his repentance. (99) Posterity has applauded the virtuous firmness of the archbishop: and the example of Theodosius may prove the beneficial influence of those principles which could force a monarch, exalted above the apprehension of human punishment, to respect the laws and ministers of an invisible Judge. "The prince," says Montesquieu, "who is actuated by the hopes and fears of religion, may be compared to a lion, docile only to the voice, and tractable to the hand, of his keeper."(100) The motions of the royal animal will therefore depend on the inclination and interest of the man who has acquired such dangerous authority over him; and the priest who holds in his hand the conscience of a king may inflame or moderate his sanguinary passions. The cause of humanity and that of persecution have been asserted by the same Ambrose with equal energy and with equal success.


Ενδιαφέρον ιστορικό έχουν και κάποια διατάγματα του Θεοδοσίου που δίνουν το κλίμα που επικρατούσε εκείνη την εποχή.Κάποια εδώ, και ένα γενικότερο κείμενο εδώ

2 σχόλια:

politispittas είπε...

Θαυμάσιος ο ιστότοπός σας μεσιέ :-)

Σας παρακολουθώ.

Και, νάσαι καλά για την αναφορά στη Θεσσαλονίκη, έγραψα και εγώ κάτι σχετικό στο σημερινό μου άρθρο στην εφημερίδα-θα το δεις στο ιστολόγιο μου.

Pandion είπε...

Καλησπέρα κ. Πίττα μας λείψατε. Είπα να φτιάξω και εγώ ένα μπλογκ να βγαζω και κάποια πράγματα με τον τρόπο που θέλω να τα λέω εγώ. Καλά που υπάρχει και το νετ και παρακολουθούμε ο ένας τον άλλον.